The European project no longer seems to be able to guarantee and control the integration process or ensure the expansion of individual and collective life chances, either within or outside the European area. We are in the midst of a profound crisis, which is leading to the emergence of social and political divisions that challenge basic constitutional principles and values, endangering social cohesion and solidarity. This volume is intended to contribute to the scientific and public debate on the challenges Europe is facing, by focusing on four key dimensions: solidarity, identity, citizenship and democracy. Using a multidisciplinary approach, it highlights the contradictions inherent in the project taken forward so far, analysing the empirical phenomena that most seem to undermine the future of Europe: international migration, insecurity linked to the loss of social rights, the emergence of new forms of cultural belonging and identity, populism, new nationalisms and, at the same time, transnational social movements that are urgently calling democracy into question. The result is a rigorous diagnosis of the social change underway, which helps to understand the obstacles to the evolution of the European project and the scope for action to relaunch it on a new social basis.