As populations become increasingly concentrated in urban centres and mega cities, while demands on transportation continue to grow, the question of how to mitigate the environmental footprint of these trends is ever more pressing. This comprehensive book demonstrates the potentially significant role of environmental taxation and other market-based instruments in meeting these challenges.Providing global insights, the book features international contributions from specialists in economics, law, technology, political economy and policy analysis. Studying environmental pricing policies in the context of urban sustainability and transportation, the contributing scholars identify cross-cutting issues to demonstrate how the use and evaluation of policy instruments can be improved. In addition to addressing the pervasive environmental impact of cities and transportation, novel case studies illustrate how the digital economy, as well as increasing globalisation, necessitate a more sustainable approach in which environmental fiscal solutions could play a vital role.Environmental Fiscal Challenges for Cities and Transport will have broad appeal for researchers and will also be a useful resource for students in law, economics and politics with an interest in urban and environmental issues. Policymakers and their staff will find its use of real-world examples and non-technical language particularly beneficial.