Same-sex relationships have successively qualified for formalization through marriage or registered partnership in many European countries. However, some EU Member States still refuse to give them any form of recognition or only allow very limited legal effects. The irregular speed of development in domestic family laws in EU Member States results in "limping family" relations, that is, family relations that are recognised as creating a formal civil status in many EU Member States, but not in all of them. The "ordre public" safeguard of private international law has widely been used to justify why a same-sex marriage or registered partnership cannot be recognised. The pretext tends to be that national identity, allegedly, becomes threatened. Nevertheless, the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of European Union provides new standards for recognition, which create legal obligations for EU Member States.00The author focuses on the interaction between human rights standards and private international law, carrying out a deft investigation of the impact of "Europeanization" on this interaction, analysing legal effects of same-sex marriages and registered partnerships in the Baltic States and Poland in a cross-border context. The central theme in this book is the elusive and ever-changing concept of ordre public, and the interplay between its understanding(s) at the national and European levels.00The aim of this book is to evaluate the impact of culture in this area of study, within the context of the analysed States? recent histories, societal developments, and religions. This book is published at a time of clashes between traditional family values and gender equality in Europe.