From Prehistory to the Middle Ages, from the Spanish mainland to the Portuguese Atlantic Coast, the Duero (or Douro as it is known in English because of its Portuguese translation) has served as a river of great historical importance. It is a river flowing from the past into the future with the legacy of the Homo Antecessor and the most ancient remains of European Prehistory, showcasing the first samples of inland farming during the Iberian Neolithic period and many examples of Schematic Rock Art. Before the total obliteration of archaeological sites in the Duero valley due to active agricultural labours and the course of time itself, the Archaeological and Protohistoric Society of Zamora, Zamoraprotohistrica, leads a programme of researching activities to preserve this heritage and to keep it safe for future generations. In order to accomplish this, the association organises a cycle of conferences, lectures and meetings gathering local, national and international archaeologists and historians in a dynamic and vibrant exchange of knowledge. This volume is a compilation of the most remarkable interventions in those meetings, and each paper gathered here represents a unique reflection on the history of the river.